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Greenhouse cultivation: types, characteristics and sustainable cultivation methods

Greenhouse cultivation: types, characteristics and sustainable cultivation methods


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There greenhouse cultivation it falls within the concept of protected cultivation.

Would you like to learn more about this branch of agriculture and know how to create a greenhouse?

Today we will tell you all about greenhouse cultivation.

Enjoy the reading.

Greenhouse cultivation: concept of "protected crop"

The forms of cultivation in which means are used to protect plants from adverse climatic factors, which could affect their normal development, are called protected crops.

Protected crops involve horticulture, floriculture, nursery and fruit growing.

The means of protection include a very wide range of structures, which can differ:

  • For the complexity: you can go from simple ground cover to the most modern and complex greenhouses, equipped with air conditioning systems.
  • For the duration of their use with respect to the crop cycle: that is, the protection can be used for the entire cultivation period or only for a part of it.

With their use you can:

  1. Achieve a different degree of climate control;
  2. Cultivating certain species in environments other than those of origin in which they are able to grow naturally (eg ornamental species of tropical origin cultivated in our environments);
  3. Anticipate or delay the productions compared to the normal period (semi-forcing);
  4. Making productions completely out of season (forcing).

To get the forcing stable greenhouses are used: practicable structures equipped with glass or plastic covers and used for the entire cultural cycle).

For the cultivation of plants in a non-optimal environment and for productions semi-forced, simpler means of protection are sufficient, which we have already talked about in the article on crop protection means.

Means of protection used in Horticulture, Floriculture and Fruit Growing

Means of defenseof the underground part of the plant

of the epigeal part of the plant

mulch

windbreaks, anti-frost and anti-freeze means, anti-hail means, shading

Semi-forcing means for early or late productionwith protection of single plants

with impractical protections applied to entire crops

with practicable seasonal protections applied to entire crops

bells, hoods

agro-textiles, caissons, tunnels

canopies, tunnel greenhouses, seasonal greenhouses

Forcing means for off-season productionsgreenhouses without above ground masonry structures

greenhouses with above ground wall structures

without air conditioning systems

with air conditioning systems

without air conditioning systems

with air conditioning systems

Why use greenhouse cultivation?

Positives

  • Lower risks from meteoric adversities;

  • Better market opportunities (enlargement of production calendars);

  • More precise production planning;

  • Higher yields;

  • Higher and constant quality standards;

  • More efficient use of resources (eg water);

  • Possibility of using modern production technologies (soilless).

Downsides

  • High costs;

  • Greater business risks;

  • Accumulation of telluric pathogens (monoculture and difficulty in carrying out long rotations);

  • Accumulation of salts in the soil (greater supply of fertilizers and absence of runoff from rainwater);

  • Environmental impact.

Greenhouse cultivation also involves a higher water use efficiency compared to that of the open field, as:

  1. There is less potential evapotranspiration (in the greenhouse, compared to the outside, there is greater air humidity, less solar radiation and almost no wind);
  2. The yields they are faster;
  3. They can be applied more efficient irrigation systems (drip irrigation and hydroponic crops).

The greenhouse: types and characteristics

The greenhouse is distinguished from other means of protection by:

1. the easy practicability by man and mechanical means;

2. the possibility of air conditioning, that is the control of the temperature and humidity inside.

Greenhouse cultivation allows you to:

- make a real forcing to obtain off-season productions.

- get one higher production in relation to the best cultivation conditions and the longer duration of the production cycle.

- have tunnel greenhouses (very frequent in horticulture), also called large tunnels, or real greenhouses.

Let's now see what are the most common types of greenhouses.

Tunnel greenhouses

Tunnel greenhouses consist of galvanized metal arches with variable width from 4 to 8 m and max height of 3.5 m.

The cover can be in plastic film of seasonal duration or multi-year (max 4 years) or in rigid plastic (polymethacrylate, polyester, polyvinyl chloride) with a long life (8-10 years).

Real greenhouses

We talk about real greenhouses when you have them vertical side walls.

There are very diversified types in relation to:

  • construction materials used (wood, concrete and metal);
  • roofing material (plastic films, rigid plastic sheets, glass);
  • shape of the roof (linear or curvilinear);
  • number of aisles (single or multiple);
  • presence of air conditioning systems (different level of control and regulation of climate elements).

In general, two opposite orientations can be distinguished in the structure for greenhouse cultivation:

1. COMPLEX STRUCTURE - THOROUGH AIR CONDITIONING

They are used to free themselves from external environmental conditions and so create optimal conditions for cultivation (in theory) of any species in any environment.

2. SIMPLE STRUCTURE - NO OR LIMITED AIR CONDITIONING

They are used for respect the areas and / or seasons as much as possible more favorable to a certain crop and to make the most of the results that can be obtained with protections that are as simple and economical as possible.

A further possible distinction it is based on the more or less complex structure and its level of control and regulation of the elements of the climate. On these bases the following are distinguished:

  1. low-tech greenhouses
  2. medium technology greenhouses
  3. high-tech greenhouses

Low-tech greenhouses

An investment of around € 20-25 / m is required for this type of greenhouse2;

The structure is very simple and the cover is made of plastic. Climate control is poor and there is often no heating system.

The species grown in these greenhouses are low-income cut vegetables and flowers. The cultivation technique is simple and does not differ much from that used in the open field. In the case of vegetables, these are often tunnel greenhouses.

Medium technology greenhouses

An investment of around 25-80 euros / m is required for this type of greenhouse2.

The structure is generally made of metal and both glass and plastic (often rigid panels) are used as roofing material.

The climate control it is more efficient than in the previous case and the internal environment is relatively independent from the external one; in the case of vegetables, however, they are often "cold greenhouses" (without heating or equipped with emergency heating in case of frost);

the cultivation techniques are more advanced, and also include hydroponic systems, with many partially or fully automated growing operations;

these greenhouses are used as well as for the cultivation of vegetables out of season, for high value cut flowers (for example the rose) and for the potted ornamental plants.

High-tech greenhouses

For this type of greenhouse, the investment required is greater than 80 euros / m2, and can reach or even exceed 160 euros / m2.

Generally the supporting structure is made of galvanized iron and the roofing material is glass. There is a sophisticated climate control, based on:

  • heating of both the air and the root zone
  • forced ventilation
  • cooling and humidification systems (e.g. cooling system)
  • light conditioning (artificial lighting and shading)
  • carbon enrichment

Indoor climate can be completely independent from the external one. The cultivation systems are such as to maximize the efficiency of use of space and minimize the use of manpower.

These greenhouses are mainly used for the cultivation of ornamental plants and for the production of propagation material in cold climate regions.

Environmental impact of greenhouse cultivation

Greenhouse cultivation causes a high environmental impact, which is expressed in:

  1. Disfigurement of the landscape and increase of the waterproofed soil surface.
  2. Disposal waste (roofing and other plastics, substrates, drainage solutions, etc.).
  3. Emissions of gas greenhouse effect (heating systems).
  4. Intensive use of chemical products (fertilizers, pesticides, geodisinfestants, herbicides, plant growth regulators) and water (often of poor quality). This causes problems with soil salinization, groundwater pollution, product contamination.
  5. Monoculture or in any case high crop specialization, thus causing a loss of "fertility" soil biology due to the accumulation of pathogenic organisms.

The area of ​​Almeria, in Spain, is one of the most intensive in the world for the use of greenhouses. In Italy, Sicily is one of the regions with the largest number of greenhouses in our country.

Data relating to Almeria annually estimate:

  • 1.1 t / ha of PE for the renewal of the covers (every 2-3 years)
  • 112 kg / ha of laces in plastic for plant tutoring
  • 50 kg / ha of chromatic traps of polypropylene for insects
  • 500 kg / ha of plastic for systems of irrigation and more, such as i mulch residues, the covers in plastic for the coverage of greenhouses, the containers in polystyrene used in nurseries, the residues soilless substrates (bags), etc.

For protected crops in Italy, about 80,000 tons of plastic are consumed per year.

In Campania the estimated annual consumption of plastic per 1 ha of greenhouses is about 3.7-4.5 t, of which 2.2-3.0 t for PE roofing and 1.5 t for mulch, irrigation systems, containers , etc.

In Holland, in a heated greenhouse, 800 t / ha of CO are released per year2 compared to 200 t / ha per year of CO2 equivalent to the carbon set by the crop: this balance represents the environmental and extra-seasonal costs.

The greenhouse agro-ecosystem is considered among those with more high consumption of pesticides. For the phytosanitary defense of crops we intervene on average with 10 chemical treatments / crop, with peaks that can exceed 20 interventions / crop for some flower species.

The annual quantity of pesticides used in Italy in intensive greenhouse production is 47 kg / ha (active ingredient), while in the Netherlands it is about 31 kg / ha.

Not infrequently, farmers use a excess water and fertilizers compared to the actual needs of the plants.

For example, the contribution of fertilizers to a tomato greenhouse in Sicily is approximately 6 t / ha per year, but only a certain percentage of the nutrients are actually absorbed by the crop.

The excessive intake of nutrients with respect to the absorption of plants, they result in problems of pollution of the aquifers (especially N) and accumulation of salts in the soil.

How to increase the environmental sustainability of greenhouse cultivation

Problems

Possible solutions

Impact on the landscapeStructural constraints and regulation of the expansion of covered areas in areas of particular landscape value by public administrations.
Plastic disposalUse of biodegradable plastic (mulch, small tunnels), long-lasting film (3-4 years, large tunnels), glass (greenhouses). Recycling of plastic materials.
Substrate disposalUse of substrates that can be used for multiple cycles (easy disinfection) and / or recyclable (eg organic substrates: compost, biomass for energy production).
Drainage solutions"Closed" cultivation systems (with irrigation water <1 dS / m)
Gaseous emissionsChoose species and cultivars with low thermal requirements;

Take measures to reduce heat loss (thermal screens);

Resort to basal warming;

Use alternative energy sources (eg organic residues) or renewable (solar, wind, biomass, ...);

Use the gases produced by heating for carbon enrichment of the greenhouse.

Soil salinizationProper management of irrigation and fertilization;

Rainwater collection.

Massive use of pesticidesIntegrated and biological fight;

Use of resistant cultivars.

Biological fatigue of the soilSteam disinfection;

Adoption of long rotations;

Soilless cultivation systems;

Use of resistant cultivars;

Grafting on resistant rootstocks (some horticultural species).


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How the tomato is grown

The tomato is a plant native to Peru, cultivated in Mexico first by the Maya and then by the Aztecs. In the last 200 years it has become one of the most important vegetable crops, many varieties have been selected to grow, adapting the plant to the most disparate climates and soils.

It is a vegetable that cannot be missing in any good home garden, so here we are to give you some tips on how to grow tomatoes. As always, we consider growing our vegetables in compliance with organic farming, i.e. without using synthetic chemical insecticides but with natural defense methods. The aim is to obtain healthy and sustainable vegetables, we will see how to do it below.

From the cherry tomato to the ox heart, from the classic sauce tomato to the extravagant black tomatoes, we are talking about a vegetable that never gets tired, thanks to its many varieties and the thousand uses it finds in the kitchen. The satisfaction of eating a tomato picked directly from your own plant will pay off all the agricultural work required, so let's see how to best cultivate this vegetable in an organic garden.


Grow strawberries in a greenhouse

Growing strawberries in greenhouses is increasingly common, as can be seen from their presence in supermarkets throughout the year.There are two ways to grow them, in the ground or out of the ground.In soil cultivation, strawberries are covered with film thermal plastics of PVC and EVA with high transparency, 0.15-0.20 mm thick, which creates a microclimate suitable for the ripening of strawberries as well as extending the harvesting period. Measure it correctly and if necessary, correct it beforehand

In the greenhouse, you can organize an automatic irrigation system. Also, on the site you can learn: how to grow strawberries in the greenhouse, the secrets of growing strawberries in the greenhouse using Dutch technology and the subtleties of growing raspberries in the greenhouse all year round. tip Growing strawberries in a greenhouse all year round is not easy. To facilitate the work, it is necessary to build a greenhouse of cellular carbonate (cellular plastic) under the plant. This is the most profitable and popular material today Strawberry is a crop that likes the light, especially when it comes to remontant varieties, as opposed to uniform varieties which have a flower emission determined with 3/4 bunches composed during the season, the remontant strawberries have an emission of the flowers for the whole period of cultivation. Strawberry can be grown in two main ways: in soil and. Strawberries grown with Bio Aksxter Companies with greenhouse strawberry cultivation that normally suffered from serious shortages resulting from the collapse of the plants during harvesting, with Bio Aksxter® they consistently produced 300 quintals per hectare on early single-seed varieties The soilless or hydroponics technique consists in cultivating strawberries in protected cultivation, in bags or pots, raised from the ground, containing a growing substrate consisting of a mix of peat or coconut fiber and perlite. The spread of the soilless strawberry cultivation has long been a consolidated reality

Grow strawberries - fruit trees - How to grow

  • Inside the greenhouse I can grow about 55 thousand strawberry plants. Traditionally in greenhouses without the up and down plant an average of six plants are grown per square meter, we grow ten plants per square meter. This means that we can produce the same quantity of strawberries in 6 thousand square meters of land that is generally produced on one hectare.
  • Greenhouse cultivation makes it possible to: - create a real forcing to obtain out-of-season productions. - obtain a greater production in relation to the best cultivation conditions and the longer duration of the production cycle
  • Growing strawberries in greenhouses Having a greenhouse for growing fruit and vegetable seedlings is one of the greatest wishes of gardening enthusiasts. The cultivation of these fruits is particularly influenced by light and temperature
  • Home »Growing strawberries» Growing in greenhouses Growing in greenhouses The La Fragolata farm has greenhouses that house 20,000 different variety strawberry plants, with the unmistakable taste of wild strawberries: Mara des bois, Annabelle and Charlotte
  • In temperate and warm greenhouses, maintaining the right temperature is essential to keep cultivated plants healthy and grow them correctly. For this, it is necessary to provide a hot and cold air system - connected to a thermostat for constant control of the internal temperature - in order to guarantee the plants their ideal habitat in any.
  • Growing strawberry plants organically is a practice within everyone's reach that can give great satisfaction. Strawberries are vegetable plants of modest development, but very generous and productive. For this reason it is easy to obtain abundant and tasty fruits with a few and careful care
  • How to Grow Strawberries. Growing strawberries in your own garden allows you to savor them as soon as they are picked. The fact that it is food, but also a decorative plant, means that it can be planted in the garden or in pots. Also, if you have any ..

How to Grow Strawberries: The Complete and Definitive Guide

Growing strawberries in pots and on the balcony Strawberries are a very simple fruit to grow on the balcony by planting the seedlings in pots. The cultivation on the terrace does not require special precautions, strawberries do not need much space (a 15 cm deep pot is enough), remember to put expanded clay or gravel on the bottom of the container to avoid stagnation that can cause them to rot. How to create a strawberry grove, 96 total strawberry plants (about 50 kg of annual production), in a few meters of space and with recycled materials.

The ideal soil for growing strawberries is sandy (loam or clay), absolutely draining and with a pH of 5.5 to 6.5. Remember that you can enrich your garden by increasing its drainage with a good compost. For example, earthworm humus is a great product fit for purpose As mentioned, strawberries can be grown in containers but you must necessarily follow and pay attention to some factors. First of all, it must be taken into account that the strawberry is a small perennial herbaceous plant that does not have exponential growth and does not require much space What to grow in the greenhouse in winter: list of sowings and plantings that can be carried out in the cold greenhouse during autumn and winter .. Growing in a greenhouse, cold greenhouse or heated greenhouse. In Northern Italy, for the cultivation of summer vegetables such as peppers, tomatoes and aubergines, it is necessary to set up a heated greenhouse

Ways To Grow Strawberries In Greenhouses All Year Round: The

Berries grown in a greenhouse will be protected from the effects of natural factors. Growing strawberries in the greenhouse all year round. Using greenhouses it is possible to grow strawberries all year round, but it is worthwhile to carefully examine all the factors and protect yourself from all kinds of risks.If you want to reduce the temperature, it is enough to ventilate the greenhouse. To grow strawberries, the humidity must be kept at 70-75%. To maintain moisture, the bottom of the bags and the air are sprayed. Growing fruit in greenhouses may be due to the high content of carbon dioxide (0.15 to 0.22%)

Furthermore, it is possible to grow strawberries vertically: there are climbing strawberries that grow verticallyThe only difference is that this type of strawberries need support - an espalier, a net, a rack - to accompany the vertical growth of the plant The dimensional differences in greenhouse crops make it particularly difficult to find equipment. offering versatility and crop targeted treatment. In the case of strawberries grown in channels suspended in greenhouses, the treatment had to be carried out by hitting the vegetation both from the top and from the bottom. The BH TOP pneumatic bar with hydraulic movement is.

Growing strawberries in greenhouses all year round, trade of

  1. 7 greenhouse vegetables. Let's now see together a selection of seven vegetables perfect for greenhouse cultivation. • Tomatoes: it is advisable to cultivate varieties of the cherry type, perhaps even in particular types (for example those with yellow skin) to have something special to bring to the table in winter
  2. The strawberry is the fruit of a perennial plant, belonging to the Rosaceae family, which is planted during visits: when to plant strawberries growing strawberries in pots Growing strawberries in pots is simple. We can choose terracotta pots or hanging pots to hang on the balcony with visit: growing strawberries in pots
  3. Here is my strawberry cultivation, made of recycled wood and super productive.
  4. a to harvest, from soil preparation to crop care: irrigation, fertilization, mulching, weed removal .. Information on the strawberry plant. Wild strawberries grow spontaneously in the woods from the plains to the high hills. The strawberry is a fruit full of life

Prepare the containers that will house the strawberries, placing a layer of expanded clay (or stones) about 5 cm high on the bottom of the vase. Pour the growing soil into it, mixing 1 handful of sand to 9 of universal soil, then use the mixture to fill the pots Planting strawberries in a greenhouse. If you want to try growing strawberries in a greenhouse, you will find that there are many benefits. All greenhouse strawberries are, by definition, protected from sudden and unexpected drops in temperature. Before the plants bloom, you will need to keep the temperature at around 60 degrees F. (15 degrees C.)

Soilless strawberry crops in a photovoltaic greenhouse

How to grow strawberries in a greenhouse Such a tasty and healthy berry, like strawberries or garden strawberries, can be grown year-round in greenhouse conditions. The success of this venture depends on the correct selection of the variety and the care of the plant strawberries in greenhouse all year round Planting and care. Planting and caring for strawberries is the most important part of the job, because the quantity and the. Product sales. After the strawberries have been collected, you need to implement them. It is worth noting. We have decided to make a sustainable greenhouse to grow strawberries soilless, with an innovative system. It was liked and awarded by various associations, which wanted to enhance the sustainability of this cultivation

Strawberry cultivation: quality and income in the cultivation of

With the complete kit for hydroponic greenhouses it is possible to grow this tasty fruit even indoors, using any space available in the house. How to grow strawberries at home Growing strawberries at home can give great satisfaction and is also an educational experience for the little ones, who can personally witness the development of the different vegetative phases of the. It is also often grown in greenhouses or for self-consumption in some family garden. Environmental needs. As already mentioned in the list of crops that can be sown in November, the strawberry is a microthermal plant. In fact, it grows well at medium temperatures. It wants 18-22 ° C during the day and 10-13 ° C at night

Growing strawberries vertically, and not only, means saving space and saving effort during harvesting, but also saving many interventions that are generally connected to cultivation on the ground: insect infestation, generation of molds, etc. However, the advice is always to focus on remontant plants that guarantee a prolonged production rather than one. How to Grow Strawberries with the Hydroponic Method. The best thing about hydroponic strawberry cultivation is that you can harvest them all year round. And if your seedlings produce more fruit than you eat, you have the option of .. The currently cultivated strawberry belongs to the Fragaria x ananassa species, derived from the spontaneous crossing that occurred over two centuries ago between two species of American origin, Fragaria chiloensis and Fragaria virginiana. It was immediately clear how this new species, endowed with gross fruits. Our growing strawberries, however, also extends outside the greenhouse, this time using the traditional method, thus taking advantage of the soil and its intrinsic mineral qualities. on the ground we use varieties of strawberries such as Asia and Clery which, unlike plants in greenhouses, are uniform and produce only once throughout the season Growing strawberries in a hydroponic greenhouse How to Grow Strawberries with the Hydroponic Method . The best thing about hydroponic strawberry cultivation is that you can harvest them all year round. And if your seedlings produce more fruit than you eat, you have the option to freeze the leftover or make jams and jellies.

Strawberry, cultivated in Sicily with the out-of-the-ground technique

  1. Before delving into the costs and tools to start a hydroponic greenhouse, it is important to say that hydroponic plants, strawberries or saffron grown according to this technique are not considered organic. There is no clear legislation governing hydroponics in Italy.
  2. The strawberry, of the Rosaceae family, is a perennial plant that is used for borders and ground cover to decorate the spots. Depending on the variety, flowering begins in April with white flowers, sometimes more or less bright pink. The first strawberries develop in the year following planting
  3. The greenhouse The greenhouse installed on the farm is 123 m long and 84 m wide, 4.50 m high at the eaves and 7.30 m at the top. It is divided into seven bays, each 12 m wide and as long as the greenhouse and has a corridor in the center used for service operations. The areas cultivated with strawberries in Italy are increasing
  4. Strawberry cultivation in soilless. Excellent result in yield and quality. Strawberry cultivation in hydroponics takes place in 15 L coconut fiber bags, with a bag length of 1 m and a width of 20 cm. Two rows of strawberries are transplanted into each bag for a total of 10 seedlings per bag with a density ranging from 100,000 / 130,000 plants
  5. In the greenhouse. Growing strawberries using PVC pipes in a greenhouse has several advantages. Firstly, it will bear fruit for almost the whole year, which, of course, is very beneficial if you intend to do this as your own business.
  6. The strawberries grown today are, with the exception of wild strawberries (Fragaria vesca), the result of hybridizations between the grandiflora, chiloensis and virginiana species. There are so many cultivars that cultivation can be done almost everywhere, except in extreme climates

Strawberries, income and sustainability with the hi-tech greenhouse

In December it is still possible to sow in the garden, just equip yourself with a tunnel. We can define it as a sort of small cold greenhouse consisting of a plastic cover, usually semi-cylindrical, to be placed above the cultivated land in order to keep the plants sheltered from the winter cold. If you don't feel like building a real greenhouse, start at. How to fertilize strawberry. A good supply of organic matter in the soil plays a decisive role in the cultivation of strawberries, therefore it is advisable, before planting the seedlings in the garden, to incorporate a good dose of mature manure into the soil (4-5 kg ​​per square meter) or compost (5-6 kg per square meter). For potted strawberries, in addition to compost, you can. The cultivation of strawberries is easy even for those who are beginners: the plant is rustic and following a few tips it can be grown in the garden, in the vegetable garden and even in pots on the balcony. meaning that, if in industrial cultivation the plants are replaced every year to reduce the risk of diseases and viruses, in the. How are strawberries grown in Metapontino? ALSIA of Basilicata exclusively offers us its own precious contribution. In Basilicata the strawberry is grown exclusively in protected cultivation, in tunnel greenhouses which are sometimes used for more than one crop cycle and more often alternate the strawberry with other vegetables, such as pepper.

Greenhouse cultivation: types, characteristics and methods

  • How to grow strawberries from seeds, seedlings or stolons. Strawberries can be planted starting from the seeds, the seedling but also from the stolons, that is those branches.
  • Thanks to an algorithm, smart sensors and an automated greenhouse, production has increased by an average of 196% in weight, this is how the race to grow strawberries ended
  • ) practice classic greenhouses and those in photovoltaic greenhouses. Another fine successful example of photovoltaic greenhouse cultivation comes to us from Puglia, where they have grown green beans, courgettes and strawberries. In any case, whatever you decide to grow I recommend ventilation to keep fungal diseases away
  • It is not necessary to grow strawberries in greenhouses: the planting of strawberries can take place both in the coldest and hottest periods of the year. There are varieties that must be transplanted in autumn (for example, if the plant is done in October, they are harvested between the end of November and the beginning of January!) And varieties that must be planted in spring.
  • Re: strawberries in the greenhouse 09/07/2016, 16:19 I rely on the fact that my mother-in-law in the land where I would like to grow for years has grown a hundred re-flowering strawberry seedlings and even today I passed and I took my portion of strawberries to make a nice fruit salad

Vegetable Garden Planter - Tomato Grow Bag Greenhouse Planting Pots Bags Reusable Non Woven Fabric with Handles 10 Gallon, Black. 4.0 out of 5 stars 5. SUFUBAI 3 Strawberry Planting Bags, Fabric, for growing plant pots and vegetables ,. Strawberry grown indoors in a greenhouse all year round will relieve doubts about the quality of the product and significantly save the family budget. Plus, annual greenhouse strawberry cultivation can be an excellent business or source of additional income Download this Premium Photo on Fresh Strawberries Being Grown in Greenhouses and Discover Over 7 Million Professional Stock Photos on Freepi Greenhouse Growing Is a very effective expedient in solving problems related to climatic conditions that can have negative results on our garden. In particular, a vegetable garden grown in a greenhouse is certainly able to withstand the cold of winter. Furthermore, it is also possible to anticipate the sowing of certain crops and thus obtain fruits and vegetables - out of season.

. Besides being good, they are also very easy to grow even in a small space, on a balcony or in a corner of the garden - here's how to grow strawberries Photos about Fresh strawberries that are grown in greenhouses in Cameron Highland, Malaysia. Image of healthy, meal, diet - 8593651 Growing strawberries is not difficult, but it is necessary to keep an eye on two important factors that affect this type of cultivation: temperature and light .. There are many who ask me how to grow strawberries because this fruit, among the small fruits the most popular, is liked a little by all young and old. Also rich as it is in vitamins, first of all vitamin C. The data of strawberries in Italy. The 2017 campaign confirms the positive trend of southern strawberry cultivation, which records about 2,300 hectares dedicated to this important first fruit. Basilicata and Campania dominate the scene with almost half of the entire national production, while Emilia Romagna and Veneto, the two most representative northern regions , recorded a significant decline in.

Tomato, courgette, strawberry, pepper, lettuce, eggplant, green bean are the most cultivated species in cold greenhouses. Production is mainly concentrated between March and June. In regions where the cold is not particularly intense, it is possible to grow vegetables even in the middle of winter, such as lettuce, escarole, radicchio and cabbage.The cultivation in soilless of the strawberry is achievable without particular problems, except for the need for quite substantial investments, therefore its profitability depends on the containment of production costs and on the production strategy: production must be planned in the periods in which the market rewards the most. As is known, the technique has some advantages, including. . For only 50 calories, a cup of fresh strawberries contains 160% of the recommended daily amount of vitamin C. Where is it grown? CLOSE TO THE SEA Growing strawberries in greenhouses is increasingly common, as can be seen from their presence in supermarkets throughout the year.There are two ways to grow them, in the ground or out of the ground. covered with thermal plastic films of PVC and EVA with high transparency, 0.15-0.20 mm thick, which creates a microclimate suitable for maturation. I.Stat allows users to search and extract data from ISTAT

Grow strawberries - Garden on the balcony - How to grow

  • Growing strawberries: how, when and where to plant them Having the opportunity to grow strawberries in your own garden (or hanging) is the dream of many lovers of berries and small home crops.
  • In his company Michieli produces strawberries in a hi-tech greenhouse of six thousand square meters above ground, completely automated, based on mobile up and down irrigation channels that allow to double production while saving water resources. An innovation that has already earned her the 2019 Smau Youth Award
  • CRESPINO - A sustainable greenhouse to grow strawberries soilless Sofia, the strawberry girl tells her story #rovigo #crespino #serra ..
  • strawberries (strawberries from autumn - winter cultivation) chili pepper (as explained in the guide at the end of the page) Those who live in southern Italy can also grow radish and fennel in greenhouses. Grow tomatoes and eggplants in greenhouses
  • Sturdy and durable greenhouse with 4mm polycarbonate panels for added strength. Thanks to the elegant maintenance-free greenhouse you can extend the gardening season and enjoy your homemade products such as fruit and vegetables. Please note the maximum snow load, equal to 320 kg / m², which makes the greenhouse suitable in areas with heavy snow.
  • The hot bed greenhouse is perfect for small gardens, patios and balconies. You can enjoy the plants you have grown inside the compact greenhouse from early spring and throughout the rest of the season

Book Apartments Fragolina Rogač. Customer Support - every day 24h Growing strawberries in a greenhouse. The guide on strawberry cultivation, planting and plant management. Prevention and fight against parasites. Areas with an excessively humid and hot climate are to be avoided, and if it is grown in a greenhouse these parameters are very important for a successful crop. With BuonAgricoltura we were at the experimental research camp of. The Dutch technology for growing strawberries in a greenhouse consists in the continuous sowing of fresh seedlings, with a frequency of one and a half months. The plants from which the berries were harvested are eliminated or used for sowing in the open ground Growing strawberries in the greenhouse. The cultivation of strawberries in greenhouses is an increasingly used activity. It is different from the traditional one outdoors and is chosen in order not to create problems with the harvest due to climatic changes, cold and various weather conditions to which strawberries are quite sensitive.

Greenhouses are glass or plastic structures that provide sunlight and magnified protection from extreme temperatures for plants you want to grow over the winter, or for plants that want a warmer climate than yours. Strawberries can be grown from seed in a greenhouse using existing bedding. Strawberry is generally grown in greenhouses within an above-ground substrate. This condition is characterized by low nutrient storage capacity and sudden changes in chemical conditions, therefore continuous control of irrigation, fertigation and acidification is required.

Greenhouse cultivation - La Fragolat

  • It's important! In the greenhouse it is impossible to grow varieties of strawberries, forming a mustache, as this will lead to an increase in planting density and the development of diseases, in particular gray rot. Strawberries in a hidden bed. This growing berry technology is quite progressive
  • how to grow in hydroponics: a complete and simple guide that guides you step by step The advantages of soilless hydroponic cultivation - compared to traditional cultivation techniques - reside above all in the possibility of starting one or more hydroponic crops even in inhospitable environments and in unsuitable conditions suitable for the birth and growth of plants
  • temperate greenhouses, when a night temperature is maintained between 10 and 14 ° C warm greenhouses, capable of maintaining temperatures between 16 and 20 ° C at night. The supporting structure of the greenhouses, even if there is no lack of wooden constructions, is substantially represented by steel
  • Strawberries are no exception, and cooling strawberry plants is a common practice among commercial growers. The number of hours of refrigeration for strawberries depends on whether the plants are grown outdoors and then stored or forced into a greenhouse
  • How to grow strawberries in greenhouses or in open fields with drip irrigation, micro-irrigation and mulching
  • You can grow tomatoes, peppers, greens, herbs, beans, squash and zucchini, eggplant, okra, green onions, and melons. The summer season does not have to be a problem for farmers because the greenhouse allows these different crops to be grown. There is no need to stop productivity in the greenhouse when summer begins
  • With the fan, you can pollinate strawberries indoors How to pollinate berries grown in greenhouses. If the greenhouse or hangar is large enough and it is difficult to pollinate with a brush, then conditions can be arranged in such a way that it brings bees into the room. Enough for 1000 sq.m. an alvear

. There is a big difference in growing plants outdoors rather than in a greenhouse. Several factors come into play when growing greenhouse crops. Most of the elements considered vital for plant growth, such as light, water temperature, humidity, etc. Strawberries When grown in greenhouses, strawberries do not run the risk of being attacked by snails, or of rotting in too humid soil. . You will get strawberries in large quantities and very tasty, the seedlings will still have to be replaced every year hello, the strawberry can be grown all year round because it adapts well to indoor or greenhouse cultivation. Remember to prepare the soil before grounding the seedlings in order to make it softer and more welcoming. How to grow strawberries. Strawberries are one of the most popular fruit varieties, both for adults and children. Now available in every season, thanks to greenhouse cultivation, the.

Let's talk about autumn strawberries and pri Growing strawberries in greenhouses. Growing strawberries in greenhouses is increasingly common, as can be seen from their presence in supermarkets throughout the year.There are two ways to grow them, in the ground or out of the ground.In soil cultivation, strawberries are covered with film thermal plastics of. Strawberries, regardless of the cultivation area, are extremely demanding from a climatic point of view and in fact, they fear frost, in particular. Strawberries appear in nature as a red fruit, dotted, with a heart shape, with a sweet and gentle taste. They grow spontaneously in the woods, are grown in the ground and in greenhouses. Hydroponic raspberries and strawberries are grown in sheltered soils - in cold warm areas or in completely closed heated greenhouses. The construction of greenhouses and the purchase of heating systems will have to spend a lot of money, in addition, the cost of energy in our time is also very high

Greenhouse Cultivation: Guide to Crops in Chius

Download this Premium Photo on Basket-Grown Strawberries Inside the Greenhouse and Discover Over 7 Million Professional Stock Photos on Freepi A GUIDE ON HOW TO GROW STRAWBERRIES. Of North American origin, strawberries are a plant that can easily be grown in the vegetable garden, so much so that they also grow spontaneously in the woods up to heights even higher than 1000 meters above sea level. grow strawberries in your own garden. Strawberries are a tasteful and delicious fruit that everyone likes. The tastiest are the natural ones that come from private gardens and vegetable gardens. Moreover, these fruits have many beneficial properties for health. For those wishing to know more, we have talked about it here

How to grow strawberry plants in a biological way

Canalis Agriculture specializes in the sale of many species of strawberry plants, precious and of the highest quality. The staff of Canalis Agriculture follows the customer in choosing the strawberry plants most suitable for the soil, climatic conditions and type of fruit. wants to obtain, by providing highly professional and quality agricultural consultancy Hydroponics is the best way to grow strawberries, Isabel Ruize of the export division of Hydroponic Systems International stresses to Italiafruit News. Traditional production methods result in limited control of water and nutrient use, creating large spending and overexploitation of water resources Big Red Strawberry Farm: Greenhouse Strawberries - See 624 unbiased reviews, 694 traveler photos , and great deals for Brinchang, Malaysia on Tripadvisor Download Greenhouse Vegetable Growing Indoor Panoramic View stock photo 26438115 royalty-free stock photos from Depositphotos's collection of millions of premium quality high resolution stock photos, vector images and illustrations Indoor Growing: i Greenhouse builders Williamson Greenhouses have announced that they are able to create a vegetable garden in a container capable of providing as much fresh vegetables as more than 4,000 square meters of land would produce. They attracted some curiosity but when they added that they were able to do so by consuming 90% less water and 80% less water.

How to Grow Strawberries (with Pictures) - wikiHo

Grow strawberries in greenhouses is possible both for sale and for your own use Strawberry cultivation in greenhouses with polycarbonate coating allows you to harvest several times a year. This allows gardeners to provide not only for your family with tasty and useful berries, but also to capitalize on its protected sale (greenhouse) The traditional method across the board advantages: low investments (excluding bare land ownership) low maintenance costs execution of the production phases with the aid of mechanical means low incidence of labor, linked to the type of product cultivated criticality

The cultivation of strawberries Vegetable Garden

When planting, the plants give out a lot of space, as the whiskers of the Honey Summer garden strawberry variety is long. One bush requires an area of ​​0.7 square meters. You can grow bushes in greenhouses, in open fields or in suspended pots Just 15 km from Piazza Duomo, Guglielmo grows strawberries, blueberries, blackberries and raspberries in ultra-modern greenhouses heated with photovoltaic panels and, skipping the supply chain, sells them in the city on 20 Api Cars . To build an agricultural greenhouse it is necessary to choose a cover: it is possible to buy various types of cover for greenhouses: the average cost depends first of all on the measures of these and, secondly, on the material with which they are made, the price per square meter for a cover. in rigid plastic is about 100-120 euros, while the cost per square meter of a glass cover. BASELGA DI PINE '. They managed to steal thousands of euros of public water to grow strawberries to the detriment of the municipality. Two entrepreneurs from Baselga di Pinè got into trouble who, by connecting to the community's water tank, led to a tax damage of about 220 thousand euros. To discover what was happening were the Carabinieri of Borgo Valsugana

GROWING STRAWBERRIES IN TUBES: ideal for small spaces - YouTub

Tomatoes and strawberries grown without land: a journey through the secrets of the vertical garden, a technological jewel in a shed. The Zero technology company opens the doors of its headquarters Professional Solutions for Protected Crops. Professional greenhouses, irrigation and heating systems, display pallets. Idroterm Serre offers turnkey professional solutions Cherry trees grown in greenhouses to protect against spring frosts and to have early ripe fruit, beating the competition. It is the project of a 19-year-old boy, Elia Fedrigo, who enthusiastically embraced the idea of ​​Gregory Lang of Michigan State University, creator of tunnel-grown cherries conducted in North America with excellent results


Recognize the particular sustainability performance of our products at a glance. Symbols and short texts clearly explain the characteristics that distinguish the product. Of course, all certifications and strict guidelines continue to apply.

Power

1 - Energy saving

Proven measures have been taken for energy-saving products to reduce energy consumption along their value chain, for example in cultivation, processing, production or transport. This can be done through the use of improved or more efficient machines, through the optimization of production processes or through the transition from road transport to rail transport. There must always be a corresponding proof of evidence (eg ecological balance).

2 - Use of renewable energies

A product whose added value chain includes the use of renewable energy contributes significantly to the reduction of harmful emissions for the environment. This could occur during cultivation, processing or even transport. An example is the conversion of fossil energy sources - such as natural gas - into renewable energy sources - such as wood chips -, or the use of district heating from an incinerator. This is also always attested by documentary evidence (such as the eco-balance).

CO2 Recycling

1 - Alcohol from recycled CO2 (with quantity compensation)

An innovative fermentation process makes it possible to obtain alcohol from the recycling of CO₂ coming from industrial exhaust gases. Recycling of CO₂ not only reduces greenhouse gas emissions but also saves conventionally produced alcohol in the detergent and detergent sector, which traditionally uses plants such as cane or sugar beet. Thanks to this innovative method for the production of alcohol, no new agricultural land is needed. This allows you to safeguard precious resources and protect the environment. The sustainable effect of alcohol produced by CO₂ is demonstrated by an ecological balance study conducted for this project by Carbotech AG. In a first phase, for technical production reasons, the principle of quantity compensation will be applied.

Resources

1 - Cultivation of environmentally friendly

Negative consequences for the environment are minimized or avoided through the optimal use of fertilizers and plant protection products, water and other resources. For example, with targeted measures the fertility of the soil is favored, consequently reducing the use of fertilizers. A further example is rice grown according to the principles of the Farm Sustainability Assessment (FSA). Rice farmers apply new farming methods that reduce methane emissions and are therefore less harmful to the climate than traditional farming methods.

Pay attention to these markings on the products: FSA, IP-SUISSE.

2 - Product with efficient use of resources

For the manufacture of products, limited natural resources such as energy, water and soil are required. An efficient production from the point of view of the use of natural resources is a production that requires a minimum use of these scarce resources. The efficiency in the use of resources can also be improved through less use of means of production such as feed, fertilizers, machines or buildings or through the exploitation of secondary products. A high efficiency in the use of resources therefore means a lower environmental impact compared to common production standards.

Pay attention to these markings on products: Standard Optigal, FSA silver and gold level or POIG.

3 - Ecological production

The production or processing of such products meets higher environmental requirements than those produced according to conventional methods. Relevant environmental aspects such as energy and water consumption, waste generation, emissions or the use of chemicals are measured regularly and continuously improved. This can be achieved through the adoption of various measures: the introduction of an environmental management system, the safe use of chemicals or compliance with the environmental requirements of a brand.

Pay attention to these markings on products: ISO 14001, BEPI, EMAS or the textile marks Eco, Made in Green, bluesign, Blauer Engel for colors and paints or ASI for metals.

4 - Made of recycled material

By making use of 100% recycled raw materials, natural resources and the environment are safeguarded, because no further raw materials are consumed. It also helps support a closed-loop type of economy. The use of recycled materials must be demonstrated with a brand recognized by Migros.

Pay attention to these markings on products: Blauer Engel, Green Label Hong Kong, Eco Mark, SCS Recycled, GRS or CCS / RCS for synthetics and textiles. FSC Recycled, Blauer Engel or PEFC Recycled for wood.

5 - With recycled material

By making use of recycled raw materials, natural resources and the environment are safeguarded, because no further raw materials are consumed. It also helps support a closed-loop type of economy. The use of recycled materials must be demonstrated with a seal recognized by Migros (such as the Global Recycling Standard (GRS)). The percentage of recycled material is established by recognized brands and can vary depending on the product group or raw material.

Pay attention to these markings on products: Blauer Engel, Green Label Hong Kong, Eco Mark, SCS Recycled, GRS or CCS / RCS for synthetics and textiles. FSC Recycled, Blauer Engel or EU Ecolabel for wood.

6 - From renewable raw materials

This product is manufactured using renewable raw materials. This means that raw materials present in nature are used which thus regenerate continuously, unlike products derived from petroleum, for example. Synthetic materials manufactured from agricultural waste are an example of this. However, renewable raw materials important for food production such as corn or potatoes are not used. There must always be a corresponding proof of evidence (eg ecological balance).

7 - Ecological

The environment is safeguarded by using natural means, traps or useful organisms. We also try to limit transport distances as much as possible. The components are, as far as possible, of Swiss origin. The renunciation of peat as a component for soils contributes to the conservation of marshy areas, biotopes of particular importance.

Pay attention to these markings on the products: Migros Bio Garden.

8 - With renewable raw materials

This product is manufactured using renewable raw materials. This means that naturally occurring raw materials are used which are continuously regenerated, unlike products derived from petroleum, for example. Synthetic materials manufactured from agricultural waste are an example of this. However, renewable raw materials important for food production such as corn or potatoes are not used.

9 - Responsible extraction of aluminum

The aluminum contained in this product complies with the requirements of the Aluminum Stewardship Initiative (ASI).Each stage of the added value chain meets ecological and social criteria, including the responsible management of waste and wastewater, the protection of biodiversity, the protection of human rights and respect for sites considered to be world heritage sites. Compliance with these requirements is regularly checked by independent certification bodies.

10 - Environmentally friendly aquaculture

Fish and seafood bearing the Migros Bio label come from ecological fish farming in harmony with nature. Organic aquaculture helps to preserve our marine resources. The fish meal and oil used for feed derive from the remains of the processing of fish intended for consumption and not from the specific fishing of wild fish for the production of feed. The locations of the farms are carefully chosen and preserve the surrounding waters and ecosystems.

11 - Made without plastic

If disposed of improperly, plastic harms the environment as it is a material that takes a long time to decompose or does not even decompose at all. Disposable products that do not contain plastic have an added value in ecological terms: if they inadvertently end up in the environment, they decompose after a certain period of time.

12 - Free of microplastics

If released into the environment, microplastics can be harmful. In fact, they can be ingested by living organisms thus entering the food chain, being usually not very biodegradable, it is difficult to remove them later. There are various sources of microplastics, eg. the particles released by the abrasion of vehicle tires. Doing without microplastics in detergents and detergents as well as in cosmetics helps to reduce plastic in the environment. By microplastic we mean particles smaller than 5 mm of water-insoluble synthetic polymers. Migros is guided by the definition given by the Swiss retail interest community and the German association of industries for detergents and personal care products (Industrieverband Körperpflege- und Waschmittel e.V.)

Water

1 - Low water consumption

The production and processing of products takes place with low water consumption along the entire value chain. It is also important that water consumption is reduced where it is most appropriate. For example, the cultivation of fruit and vegetables requires considerable quantities of water. With the help of new techniques and sustainable cultivation methods, it is possible to optimize water consumption.

Pay attention to these markings on products: FSA silver and gold level or WWF program.

2 - Low water consumption in use

The use of these products requires a much lower quantity of water than traditional products. Water consumption, for example, can be reduced by 50% by installing shower heads, taps and water-saving devices.

Pay attention to these markings on the products: Topten.

3 - For the protection of our oceans

Fish and seafood with the MSC (Marine Stewardship Council) quality label come from sustainable fishing that avoids by-catches, respects the seabed and ensures that fish stocks have time to rebuild and reproduce. This preserves the multiplicity of species and the ecosystem. The MSC mark certifies only fish and seafood whose population, at the time of certification, was not subject to overfishing or was not greatly reduced according to internationally recognized reference values. A reduction in fish stocks without countermeasures results in a loss of the MSC quality mark for the fish and seafood in question.

Biodiversity

1 - Promotes biodiversity

Protecting and promoting biodiversity means engaging in resource management that is respectful of nature and animals and creating or conserving natural habitats for rare plants and wildlife. The biodiversity of species and natural habitats is the basis of any life process on our planet. Together with the soil, air and water, biodiversity represents one of the most important foundations for human life. In recent decades, biodiversity has decreased significantly.

Many animal and plant species are threatened. Pay attention to these markings on the products: IP-SUISSE, FSA silver and gold level, ASC or MSC, POIG, Bio Suisse or FSC.

Pesticides

1 - Cultivation without the use of synthetic plant protection products

Various diseases, parasites and weeds can significantly reduce the yield of agricultural crops. Through appropriate measures (crop rotation, choice of variety, etc.) and the promotion of biodiversity it is possible to prevent crop losses caused by plant diseases and parasites. However, preventive measures alone are often not enough to protect crops. Without synthetic plant protection products, this means: no insecticides are used to fight parasites, but useful organisms that regulate their infestation. Preparations based on copper, sulfur and clay are useful against plant diseases. Weeds are mechanically uprooted and herbicides are dispensed with. In this way, the environment is safeguarded and the risk of residues of chemical substances in food is minimized.

Pay attention to these markings on the products: Bio Suisse or indication of the European regulation on organic farming.

2 - Optimized plant protection

Various diseases, parasites and weeds can significantly reduce the yield of agricultural crops. Through appropriate measures (crop rotation, choice of variety, etc.) and the promotion of biodiversity it is possible to prevent crop losses caused by plant diseases and parasites. However, preventive measures alone are often not enough to protect crops. In integrated farming systems, phytosanitary products are also used, but always in combination with alternative methods such as the fight against parasites with the help of useful organisms. For this reason, TerraSuisse grain producers for example do not use fungicides and insecticides.

Pay attention to these markings on the products: IP-SUISSE, FSA silver and gold level.

Climate

1 - Not harmful to the climate

Proven measures have been taken for climate-friendly products to reduce climate-damaging emissions along the entire value chain. For example in cultivation, production, processing or transport. These are, for example, measures that aim to reduce energy consumption during production or processing, switch to energy produced from renewable sources, reduce the use of fertilizers that cause emissions that are harmful to the climate, and the renunciation of air transport.

Pay attention to these markings on the products: FSA silver and gold level or corresponding test certificate (e.g. ecological balance)

2 - CO2 neutral cultivation

This product was grown in a CO2 neutral manner. This can be done through the use of renewable energies in the cultivation phase, eg. heating of greenhouses by district heating or wood chips. Another possibility is to offset CO2 emissions within its own value-added chains, in collaboration with organizations such as myclimate. CO2 neutrality is always supported by the relevant documentary evidence.

Pollution

1 - Low emissions

Low-emission products have a lower solvent content and meet stringent requirements for harmful additives. Furthermore, the preservatives used are also reduced as much as possible. Thanks to the use of low-emission and low-toxicity products, any risks to human health can be minimized.

Pay attention to these markings on the products: Blauer Engel.

2 - Product without harmful substances

The denomination "Product without harmful substances" guarantees the absence of substances in the finishing of the fabrics, whose toxicity for man and the environment is proven or potential. The substances that are not allowed to be used in the production phase are clearly indicated in the list of substances harmful to health, whose presence in production processes is limited or prohibited (MRSL - Manufactoring Restricted Substance List). Migros thus ensures that problematic substances are not used in production processes.

Pay attention to these markings on products: Eco, Bio Cotton, GOTS, bluesign or Made in Green.

3 - Bleaching without chlorine

The bleached products without chlorine are products based on cellulose processed with the TCF method (totally chlorine free), which does not require the use of chlorine or its compounds and therefore reduces the environmental impact. Chlorine compounds, i.e. chlorinated organic compounds that form with chlorine, decompose very hardly and remain in the environment for a long time. Instead, cellulose bleached with hydrogen peroxide or ozone is used. In common jargon we speak of "oxygenation".

4 - Well biodegradable according to OECD 302 test B

Good biodegradability ensures that the substances contained in detergents and detergents are eliminated at least 90% in purification plants. This contributes to safeguarding the environment and protecting the waters from pollution. According to OECD guideline 302 B, detergents and detergents are also tested for CO2 analysis. This testing method simulates the conditions in sewage treatment plants.

Working conditions

1 - Acceptable working conditions

Working conditions at the production level are regularly checked by independent bodies and largely meet stringent requirements. In defining the requirements, Migros refers to the amfori BSCI code of conduct or systems of equal importance. The requirements include, inter alia, the prohibition of child and forced labor as well as regulations relating to safety at work, pay, working hours, etc.

2 - Involvement of the local population

The standard includes requirements on respect for human rights and the needs of the local population. For example, this can be a preliminary process of free approval supported by adequate information or explicit respect for the cultural and religious heritage of a population. The fulfillment of these requirements is particularly important in countries where land rights are not regulated by law or where the laws do not sufficiently protect the interests of indigenous peoples.

Pay attention to these markings on products: FSC, POIG, RSPO + or ASI.

3 - Fair partnership

Migros fosters an active dialogue with its producers, concludes long-term partnership agreements and pays market-compliant prices for agricultural raw materials. This provides manufacturers with transparency, stability and planning security, thus forming a fundamental prerequisite for a company's long-term economic success.

For example, milk producers were actively involved in the development process of the "Migros Sustainable Milk" program. Migros secures long-term contracts to sustainable milk producers and pays a sustainability supplement to demonstrate its commitment. It also ensures that the amount paid for the milk price is paid in full to the milk producers.

4 - Product from fair trade

People who buy Fairtrade Max Havelaar branded products enable small producers and employees in developing countries to obtain a decent income and better working conditions. Fairtrade supports producers by ensuring clear social and ecological standards, stable prices and premiums as well as a locally branched advisory system. Small farmers invest a portion of their turnover in projects that benefit the whole community, such as the construction of fountains, schools or hospitals. Migros has been a partner of Fairtrade Max Havelaar since its foundation in 1992.

Traceability

1 - Traceability to the farmer

Traceable means that each stage of production can be traced back to the original source. Fairtrade branded bananas, coffee or rice are produced by Fairtrade growers, processed and transported separately throughout the entire processing and distribution chain. For some products, eg. fruit juices, traceability to the farmer is not always possible for logistical reasons. However, most of the Fairtrade fruit juices at Migros allow traceability back to the cooperative, because Migros purchases the raw material for the juices directly from the Fairtrade cooperatives. Enter the Fairtrade code on the package in the product search page of the Max Havelaar website and find out where your product comes from.

Pay attention to these markings on the products: Fairtrade Max Havelaar (only if physically traceable), Bio Suisse or indication of the European regulation on organic farming.

2 - From wholly owned production

Traceable means that it is possible to reconstruct each processing step of a textile product. All stages of processing - from spinning, weaving, knitting, coloring, printing to packaging - are recorded and, if chemicals are used, it is verified that these substances are not harmful.

Pay attention to these markings on the products: Eco for textiles, Made in Green or bluesign.

3 - Fully controlled since cultivation

Every company involved along the entire processing chain, from the cultivation of the cotton field to the manufacture of the final product, must have been audited. This creates a chain of custody and ensures the traceability of the material flow.

Pay attention to these markings on products: Bio Cotton or GOTS.

Raw material

1 - Responsible coffee cultivation

The coffee in this product was grown by farmers certified by the Rainforest Alliance. The Rainforest Alliance ensures sustainable agriculture and better prospects for the future of farmers, workers, their families and the environment. The Rainforest Alliance program enables farmers to learn better farming methods, improve their working conditions and take better care of their children and nature. Thanks to the Rainforest Alliance program, farmers improve their crops, increase income and broaden their prospects, while respecting the environment and the natural resources of our planet.

2 - Responsible tea cultivation

The tea from this product was grown on Rainforest Alliance certified plantations. The Rainforest Alliance ensures sustainable agriculture and better prospects for the future of farmers, workers, their families and the environment. The Rainforest Alliance program enables farmers to learn innovative farming methods, improve their working conditions and take better care of their children and nature. Thanks to the Rainforest Alliance program, farmers improve their crops, increase income and broaden their prospects, while respecting the environment and the natural resources of our planet.

3 - Responsible cocoa cultivation

Migros collaborates with the Rainforest Alliance in favor of sustainable cocoa cultivation. The Rainforest Alliance ensures sustainable agriculture and better prospects for the future of farmers, workers, their families and the environment. The Rainforest Alliance program enables farmers to learn better farming methods, improve their working conditions and take better care of their children and nature. Thanks to the Rainforest Alliance program, farmers improve their crops, increase income and broaden their prospects, while respecting the environment and the natural resources of our planet.

4 - Responsible cultivation of hazelnuts

Migros collaborates with the Rainforest Alliance in favor of sustainable hazelnut cultivation. The Rainforest Alliance ensures sustainable agriculture and better prospects for the future of farmers, workers, their families and the environment. The Rainforest Alliance program enables farmers to learn better farming methods, improve their working conditions and take better care of their children and nature. Thanks to the Rainforest Alliance program, farmers improve their crops, increase income and broaden their prospects, while respecting the environment and the natural resources of our planet.

5 - Responsible cultivation of palm oil

Migros is together with WWF one of the founding members of the "Roundtable on Sustainable Palma Oil - (RSPO)", which aims to improve the production of palm oil worldwide. Sustainable cultivation according to the principles and criteria of the RSPO means that since 2005 no more tropical forests have been burned to make room for plantations, that the laws are respected and that working conditions are fair and safe. The palm oil processed directly by the Migros industry for food production is sourced from suppliers in Switzerland. In addition to being RSPO certified, the producers from which our suppliers purchase palm oil are regularly audited by the independent organization The Forest Trust (TFT) which also ensures that other criteria, including water management, are met. or that cultivation is not carried out in marshy areas rich in peat.In doing so, we go far beyond the guidelines of the RSPO.

6 - Responsable cultivation

The Farm Sustainability Assessment (FSA) tool was designed to promote agriculture in the context of sustainable development. The tool provides for optimal use of fertilizers, plant protection products, water and other resources. For example, with targeted measures the fertility of the soil is favored, consequently reducing the use of fertilizers. In the case of rice grown according to the FSA principles, for example, rice farmers implement new methods that reduce methane emissions and are therefore more ecological than traditional rice cultivation techniques.

Pay attention to these markings on products: FSA (silver or gold level).

Additional standards allowed for the product description are:

Rainforest Alliance certified farms meet the ecological, social and economic criteria of the Rainforest Alliance standard for sustainable agriculture.

M-Classic brand juices with Fairtrade Max Havelaar certification. Fairtrade supports producers by ensuring clear social and ecological standards, stable prices and premiums as well as a locally branched advisory system.

7 - Responsible cultivation of soy

As a founding member of the Swiss Soy Network and the international Roundtable on Responsible Soy Association (RTRS), Migros is committed to promoting sustainable soy production. Among other things, the following criteria are included: no deforestation of virgin forests and habitats rich in species, application of integrated production methods with the aim of reducing the use of potentially harmful plant protection products and fertilizers, as well as protecting the soil and the water. Furthermore, labor rights as well as traditional territorial rights are respected. The control of farms and the flow of goods is carried out by independent institutes.

8 - Free of components of animal origin

No animal fats or other components of animal origin are used for the production of the detergent and detergent components.

9 - Responsible forest management

The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international organization that includes various environmental and trade associations and representatives of local ethnic groups. It promotes environmentally friendly and socially and economically sustainable forest management, and to this end it has developed rules that are valid internationally. These include, for example, the prohibition of illegal exploitation and logging, the conservation and strengthening of forests that are particularly important for the environment, the protection of rare and threatened species, respect for the rights of indigenous peoples, the protection of workers' rights and a ban on the use of genetic engineering. In this way, the natural functions of the forest are preserved over the long term. Compliance with the directives is regularly monitored by independent bodies.

10 - Sustainable Swiss agriculture

TerraSuisse products are supplied exclusively for Migros by Swiss IP-SUISSE farmers. Animal welfare as well as ecological cultivation in harmony with nature are central factors of production. Cereals, potatoes and rapeseed are grown with respect for the environment and no insecticides, growth regulators and fungicides are used. The cattle are raised in stables respectful of the individual species with the possibility of spending time outdoors. IP-SUISSE farmers also create habitats for rare animal and plant species and thus promote biodiversity.

11 - From organic farming

"From organic farming" refers to products certified according to the Migros Bio or Migros Bio Cotton standard.

Organic farmers work in harmony with nature. They use natural additives and make sure to keep the land fertile. Organic farmers cannot use synthetic plant protection products or chemical fertilizers. Crops are protected from parasites by, for example, beneficial insects such as ladybugs. The animals are raised with particular attention to the needs of the species, they can go outdoors regularly and are fed with organic feed. Inspection and certification are carried out regularly by an independent institute.

Migros Bio Cotton

Cotton from controlled organic farming leaves a pleasant sensation on the skin without causing negative consequences for the environment. The fields are cultivated with natural means. The strict eco guidelines set by Migros also apply to the environmentally friendly processing of Migros Bio Cotton. In this way, the health of those who work in textile production is protected and the environment and the aquifer are not polluted.

Projects under reorganization

1 - Project under construction with the WWF

This sustainability project has not yet reached the finish line. However, we have already defined action plans and started implementation. With the help of independent consultants, continuous improvements in agricultural practices are developed and made. In this way we guarantee tailor-made optimization processes that allow us to define the most important sustainability objectives for each company. Together with producers and processing companies, we are thus able to achieve the greatest possible impact with a view to making cultivation systems ecological.

Experts from the fields of water, plant protection and biodiversity work together with the aim of meeting high standards within a predefined time frame. In a first phase, for example, it is evaluated how to improve biodiversity on the land of a company in order to create habitats for useful organisms. We monitor the progress of our partners with the help of external control bodies and ensure that regular progress is made.

2 - Projects under reorganization

This sustainability project has not yet reached the finish line. However, we have already defined action plans and started implementation. With the help of independent consultants, continuous improvements in agricultural practices are developed and made. In this way we guarantee tailor-made optimization processes that allow us to define the most important sustainability objectives for each company. Together with producers and processing companies, we are thus able to achieve the greatest possible impact with a view to making cultivation systems ecological.

Experts from the fields of water, plant protection and biodiversity work together with the aim of meeting high standards within a predefined period of time. In a first phase, for example, we evaluate how to improve the biodiversity on the land of a company in order to create habitats for useful organisms. We monitor the progress of our partners with the help of external control bodies and ensure that regular progress is made.

Sustainable fishing method

1 - Fished on the hook

Rod fishing is a traditional and sustainable fishing method. The tuna are attracted by means of small baits left in the water near the boat. At the same time, water is sprayed over the surface, to give the impression that there is a large school of fish and thus trigger the predatory instinct of the tuna. The line is not equipped with a barb, but with a simple hook, so that the fish can be freed from the hook as soon as possible.

On each boat there is space for a maximum of 20 fishermen who, standing next to each other with a rod line between two and three meters long, are able with this method to pull a tuna out of the water after the other. This method of fishing avoids the capture of turtles, sharks and dolphins, generates a good income for fishermen and also creates jobs.

Packaging

1 - Greener packaging

Packaging has to perform several functions and at the same time be as environmentally friendly as possible. True to the motto "Avoid - Reduce - Reuse", Migros is continually optimizing its packaging. We use less material, use recycled raw materials or choose more environmentally friendly types of packaging (e.g. bags instead of jars). Or we make use of ecological materials (eg paper and cardboard instead of plastic, if it is appropriate from an ecological point of view).

Here you can find more information on ecological packaging at Migros:

Animal welfare beef / pork / veal

1 - Outdoor farming

Outdoor farming is a form of farming in which barn animals have different surfaces: litter covered with litter for lying down, feeders for feeding and above all an outdoor enclosure in which the animals can move in the air fresh. The sun and fresh air are good for animal health.

Outdoor farming is based on the two federal animal welfare programs: SSRA and URA. SSRA stands for particularly animal-friendly housing systems and URA stands for regular outdoors.

2 - Grazing farming

In pasture farming, animals can graze freely during the growing season (from spring to autumn). For grazing beef at least eight hours a day. Grazing cattle can feed on fresh grass and tasty aromatic herbs. In winter the cattle are raised in a respectful way of the animals with the possibility of moving in an outdoor courtyard and fed with hay and silage feed, but not with soy.

3 - Swiss provisions on the protection of animals

Migros plays a pioneering role in the area of ​​animal welfare. Many of our products of animal origin and in particular beef, veal and pork come from our own production in Switzerland. Migros is committed to ensuring that the same high standards for breeding that apply in Switzerland also apply to our producers abroad. The measures taken include optimizations in relation to animal husbandry and health, feed, transport and slaughter. The program is audited by the independent certification body ProCert.

Animal welfare poultry

1 - Particularly respectful housing of animals

The "particularly animal-friendly housing system" (SSRA) - from which our Optigal chickens also come - was developed by the Confederation in collaboration with experts and veterinarians. This form of breeding establishes animal welfare requirements that are higher than those required by Swiss legislation. The animals have more space, raised platforms to rest and enough fresh air thanks to a winter garden (outdoor climate area).

2 - Rural outdoor farming

Free range hens and roosters have access to a lawn as soon as they have reached a sufficient level of growth. They can scratch and peck bugs. The animals then spend the night in protected chicken coops. These are often small mobile chicken coops that are regularly moved to new lawns. Find out more about our free range eggs.

3 - Swiss provisions on the protection of animals

Migros plays a pioneering role in the area of ​​animal welfare. Many of our products of animal origin and in particular beef, veal and pork come from our own production in Switzerland. Migros is committed to ensuring that the same high standards for breeding that apply in Switzerland also apply to our producers abroad. The measures taken include optimizations in relation to animal husbandry and health, feed, transport and slaughter. The program is audited by the independent certification body ProCert.

Animal welfare laying hens

1 - Eggs from outdoor rural farming

Migros plays a pioneering role in the area of ​​animal welfare. Migros is committed to ensuring that the same high standards for breeding that apply in Switzerland also apply to our producers abroad. The measures taken include optimizations in relation to animal husbandry and health, feed, transport and slaughter.

As far as eggs are concerned, we collaborate with the KAT organization. KAT stands for Kontrollierte Alternative Haltungsform (controlled alternative breeding). In addition to outdoor rearing, the KAT standards also include other criteria, such as a ban on beak trimming, and are therefore comparable to Swiss animal protection legislation.
The production of free-range eggs is thus verified by an independent control body along the entire value-added chain.

Applies to: KAT (import)

2 - Animal-friendly outdoor breeding

The Swiss hens that lay eggs for Migros are reared in a way that is particularly respectful of their needs. Outdoor farming by Migros not only complies with the requirements of Swiss law, but also goes beyond the common regulations governing this type of farming.

Free-range rearing means that once the hens have reached their 23rd week of life at the latest, they must have access to a meadow from 12 to 17 if the weather conditions permit. Additional Migros requirements include, for example, the setting up of bushes or sun sails on the pasture to provide hens with protection from the sun and birds of prey.

On the following website you can trace the origin of the egg up to the farm: origin of the eggs

3 - Without killing of chicks

In Switzerland, 3 million male chicks are killed every year in the context of egg production. The reason is that today there are practically only hyperspecialized and extremely performing chicken breeds: laying hens in fact come to lay about 300 eggs per year and for this reason they have a very moderate growth. Lay siblings are unsuitable for egg or meat production, which is why they are mostly killed immediately after hatching. This practice, common throughout the world, confronts our society with an ethical problem that must be solved.

With the SELEGGT procedure, which allows you to determine the sex in the egg, it is now possible to offer eggs without resorting to killing male chicks. Male hatching eggs are sorted and can, for example, be transformed into feed. So after 21 days only female chicks hatch which, once they become laying hens, will lay eggs. The introduction of eggs without the sacrifice of chicks into the Migros range is taking place gradually. Further information is available at www.respeggt.com

Animal welfare dairy cows

1 - Swiss provisions on the protection of animals

Migros plays a pioneering role in the area of ​​animal welfare. Many of our products of animal origin and in particular beef, veal and pork come from our own production in Switzerland. Migros is committed to ensuring that the same high standards for breeding that apply in Switzerland also apply to our producers abroad. The measures taken include optimizations in relation to animal husbandry and health, feed, transport and slaughter. The program is audited by the independent certification body ProCert.

2 - Particularly respectful housing of animals

Migros' sustainable milk producers promote animal welfare by raising their cows in a way that is particularly respectful of their needs. In doing so they follow one of the two federal programs for animal welfare (SSRA and URA). The programs have been developed in collaboration with experts and veterinarians and set animal welfare requirements higher than those required by Swiss legislation.

The "regular outdoor" (URA) allows the animals to graze regularly during the growing season. The "Particularly Animal Friendly Housing System (SSRA)" offers the animals the possibility of movement and comfortable bedding in the barn.

3 - Grazing farming

The farmers who produce TerraSuisse pasture milk support the welfare of the animals by raising their cows in a way that is particularly respectful of their needs. In doing so, they comply with the federal URA program as a minimum requirement. URA stands for "regular going outdoors" and ensures the animals can graze regularly during the growing season. If the weather conditions do not allow the exits, the animals can move in the open air in a special enclosure. The program was developed in collaboration with experts and veterinarians and sets animal welfare requirements higher than those required by Swiss legislation.

Animal welfare fish

1 - Particularly respectful housing of animals

Fish and seafood bearing the Migros Bio label come from sustainable fish farming in harmony with nature. They are raised in species-friendly conditions in large tanks with fresh or salt water and a low density of animals. Fish farmers use organic feed and comply with the strict conditions relating to the use of medicines. Organic breeders forgo genetic engineering and chemical additives, growth stimulators and hormones.

2 - Responsible aquaculture

Aquaculture Stewardship Counci (ASC) certified fish farms must operate in accordance with high ASC standards in order to safeguard the natural environment, biodiversity and water resources. To determine whether a fish farm meets the requirements, it undergoes an examination by a certification body that verifies whether ASC standards are met in the following sectors of aquaculture: safeguarding the natural environment, biodiversity and wild populations ( e.g. preventing the escape of farmed fish which could pose a danger to wild fish) as well as the conscious purchase and use of feed and other resources.

3 - Sustainable fishing

The fish and seafood with the MSC (Marine Stewardship Council) quality label come from sustainable fishing that avoids by-catches, respects the seabed and ensures that fish stocks have time to rebuild and reproduce. This preserves the multiplicity of species and the ecosystem. The MSC mark certifies only fish and seafood whose population, at the time of certification, was not subject to overfishing or was not greatly reduced according to internationally recognized reference values. A reduction in fish stocks without countermeasures results in a loss of the MSC quality mark for the fish and seafood in question.


General arboriculture - classroom / laboratory exercises
Organography of tree and shrub species determination of the main qualitative characteristics of the fruits in order to determine the optimal harvesting stage.

General arboriculture - field exercises
Recognition of tree and shrub species techniques and equipment for the management of trees and shrubs with particular reference to the squaring of the land, the planting, pruning and training methods.

General arboriculture - Seminars with experts on issues related to the sector. Visits to tree farms.

Nursery technique - frontal lessons
General: definitions, main branches of nursery, prerequisites for nursery activity, importance of nursery. Regulations concerning the nursery sector: phytosanitary defense, genetic integrity and quality.
Structure of the nursery: business center (offices, warehouses, workshops, cold rooms, laboratories, garden-exhibition, packaging and shipping area) propagation center (defense structures - windbreaks, anti-hail nets, shade screens, semi-forcing mulch - forcing tunnel - greenhouses) cultivation area (seedbed, rooted vineyard, nestaio, seedling, trap, bastardiera, lazzaretto). Greenhouses for shrub and tree crops: location, size, orientation, shape, types of supporting structure, loads and materials used, greenhouse effect and air conditioning roofing materials (heating, cooling, lighting, humidification, carbon enrichment). Strategies to increase the environmental compatibility of greenhouse settlements.
Open field cultivation for shrub and tree crops: planting, crop rotation and soil sterilization, pruning and farming methods, weeding, fertilization, irrigation, bare root and earth bread transplantation.
Tunnel and greenhouse cultivation for shrub and tree crops: banquettes, caissons, pallets, irrigation, fertilization, hints of pest control, weeding.
Container cultivation for shrub and tree crops: land arrangement, cultivation substrates (characteristics, preparation and sterilization), characteristics of the different types of container, potting and arrangement of plants in the cultivation area, fertilization, irrigation, closed cycle irrigation, weeding .
Marketing: shipping time, preparation, loading.
Principles and techniques for the gamic and agamic propagation of arboreal and shrubby plants: by seed, by cutting, by offshoot / layering, by cutting, by grafting and by micropropagation.

Nursery technique - classroom / laboratory exercises
Container growing materials.

Nursery technique - exercises in the field
Propagation techniques for tree and shrub species, with particular reference to micropropagation, cutting and grafting. Structures and materials for the construction of semi-forcing and forcing means in the nursery.


Gardening

Garden, flowers, plants and vegetable garden: guide to gardening with videos and photos, tips, tutorials and guides to cultivation and care of plants, flowers, fruits, vegetables, trees with information on illnesses, pests, pruning and multiplication methods.

We find cards is features of every flower or plant from A to Z with information to reproduce plants and take care of them during growth up to obtaining flowers and fruits.

The cards they also contain guides to watering, exposure, climate, type of soil or fertilizer to be used, treatments and uses.

There are curiosities from the language and meaning of flowers and plants to things to know such as beneficial and curative properties, toxicity, poisonousness or contraindications.


THE TYPES AND METHODS OF AGRICULTURAL IRRIGATION

by GermoglioVerde Published on 6 August 2018 Updated on 8 March 2021

L'irrigation is one of the main cultivation operations that is identified with humectant irrigation, aimed at increasing the soil moisture, when the natural water supplies and stored reserves are insufficient to cover the needs of the crops.

Starting from its function we can define irrigation as the way to provide the right water to plants with the aim not only to nourish and protect them, for example from drought, but also to make them grow and increase space and volume.

THE IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES

The development of irrigation techniques or even the discovery of irrigated agriculture has allowed man to be independent of atmospheric conditions in some way, let's say at least from the periods of rain.

With the'artificial irrigation man has learned to produce double the agricultural quantity that arises spontaneously fueled by rain or overflowing water which, however, at the same time as they fed a soil risked creating great damage not only to crops but also to inhabited centers in general.

Man has learned to control water, in a certain sense, by building embankments, building dams and for example building systems that reproduce the descent to rain.

THE VARIOUS TYPES OF IRRIGATION

The five irrigations used by man to grow agriculture.

There are several classifications on the methodologies of agricultural irrigation but there are five mainly known and applied methods that can be divided between conventional irrigation techniques and unconventional or advanced irrigation techniques.

L'irrigated agriculture in the next twenty years, for example, it is expected that it will be mainly on the surface.

A) SURFACE IRRIGATION

It defines itself surface irrigation that method that almost entirely submerges the cultivated area.

This technique is mainly used by small farmers who do not have large capital to build complex hydraulic structures.

The flooding of the area requires a large amount of water and few resources to be able to implement it. It is not well regarded by experts as it not only wastes water but causes swamping and salinization of the soil.

B) SPRAY OR RAIN IRRIGATION

Another important irrigation technique is called ad sprinkling or rain. We all see it when we leave big cities with jets of water sprayed on large cultivated areas. The goal is to imitate the rain and then distribute the water in the form of small drops. Also this technique is cheap and easy to apply, it only needs a pump, pipes and sprinklers.

Furthermore, this technique involves the use of large amounts of water and unfortunately also the risk of damage to the ground in the long term.

Surface irrigation is sprinkler irrigation by sprinkling they fall within what is defined conventional irrigation.

C) OTHER TYPES OF IRRIGATION

There are three other types of irrigation: by drip, underground and sub irrigation.

L'drip irrigation in essence, it distributes the water in a gradual and targeted manner, allowing the water to drip only over the root area.

A method used above all in tree and fruit agriculture.

L'drip irrigation it is also known by the name of localized irrigation or micro irrigation. The drip delivery can be constant or intermittent, the water in this way is not wasted compared to the large quantity spray of conventional irrigation.

L'drip irrigation it is also called micro-irrigation or localized irrigation and it is a practice of irrigation of the soil which consists in making the water deposit on the surface and near the plant, very slowly.

HOW THE DROP IRRIGATION SYSTEM IS COMPOSED

A drip irrigation system consists of valves, ducts and drippers. The system can operate continuously or intermittently, in this case it is called "sips", since irrigation takes place at regular intervals. The drippers are inserted in said tubes dripping wings and are used to sprinkle the plant with water.

Driplines can be rigid or flexible, the former last longer, but the making of a drip irrigation system with rigid driplines it is more expensive. It is also possible to bury the pipes, one of the most expensive solutions, by placing the drippers on an equal footing with the ground.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DROP AND RAIN IRRIGATION

L'drip irrigation it is usually used for tree cultivation, while thesprinkler irrigation for vegetable cultivation. For a decade now, drip irrigation has also taken hold for the cultivation of vegetables, to the point of being used in the industrial field for the cultivation of industrial tomatoes. This practice of irrigation it allows not only to save water, but also to save labor.

There is a variant of irrigation drop, said spray irrigation, which differs from the first in the use of micro-sprayers instead of drippers.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF DROP IRRIGATION

L'drip irrigation began to develop from 1860 in Germany: the pipes used were made of clay. When the pipe industry evolved after the Second World War, modern plastic pipes were introduced that allowed substantial improvements, so much so as to make this practice widespread not only throughout Europe, but also in America.

THE drip irrigation systems if installed well and managed, they can also optimize the use of water, avoiding waste. The reason is simple: the practice of drip irrigation allows water to be administered more precisely to the roots of plants, unlike what happens with sprinkler irrigation.

It must be said that a poorly made and poorly managed irrigation system can, instead of saving money, cause loss of money.

UNDERGROUND AND SUB IRRIGATION IRRIGATION

Coming at underground irrigation and sub-irrigation we see the development of human knowledge for the control of the land and its growth resources.

L'underground irrigation it dedicates itself to the area of ​​the roots which it nourishes through porous containers or pipes positioned in the soil.

There sub irrigation instead it is based on the humidity of the root area through pipes which, in addition to water, disperse steam.

It is a type of irrigation practicable only on soils with not very permeable subsoil.

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Comments:

  1. JoJodal

    Excuse me, I have thought and the thought has taken away

  2. Conroy

    I liked the first one - I think this one is not worse.

  3. Nikolkis

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  4. Habib

    Thank you so much for your support. I should.

  5. Fabian

    I am here by chance, but specially registered to participate in the discussion.

  6. Kajimuro

    Norm



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